Tajikistan (Listeni/tɑːˈkstɑːn//təˈkstæn/, or /tæˈkstæn/Тоҷикистон [tɔd͡ʒikɪsˈtɔn]), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (TajikҶумҳурии ТоҷикистонÇumhuriji Toçikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country inCentral Asia with an estimated 8 million people in 2013, and an area of 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi). It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east.Pakistan lies to the south, separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Traditional homelands of Tajik people included present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.

The territory that now constitutes Tajikistan was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm[6] of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilizationAndronovo cultureBuddhismNestorian ChristianityZoroastrianismManichaeism and Islam. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid EmpireSasanian EmpireHephthalite EmpireSamanid EmpireMongol EmpireTimurid dynasty, and the Russian Empire. As a result of the breakup of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan became an independent nation in 1991. A civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow.

Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's 8 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group, who speak Tajik (a dialect of Persian). Many Tajiks also speak Russian as their second language. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It has a transition economy that is highly dependent on remittancesaluminium and cotton production.

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